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|Título:||The promotion of older adults' sense of coherence through person-centered therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study|
|Autor:||von Humboldt, Sofia|
Leal, Isabel Pereira
Terapia centrada en la persona
Sentido de la coherencia
Sense of coherence
|Editora:||Centro Interamericano de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Ciencias Afines|
|Citação:||Interdisciplinaria, 30 (2), 235-251|
|Resumo:||El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue explorar
si una intervención individual de terapia
centrada en la persona (TCP) en personas adultas
mayores puede promover su sentido de cohe -
rencia, en comparación con un grupo control
(lis ta de espera). Se plantea que los participantes
asignados al azar a TCP informarían mejoras en
SDC de pre y post-intervención en com paración
con el grupo control.
Un grupo de 87 participantes de 65 a 86 años
(M = 72.4; DE = 5.15) fue evaluado con la Escala
de Sentido de Coherencia (ESDC) y el cuestionario
sociodemográfico en tres momentos diferentes:
al inicio del estudio (t1), post-trata miento
(t2) y a los 12 meses de seguimiento (t3).
Los resultados indicaron que los participantes
en TCP evidenciaron un aumento significativo
en cuanto a su SDC (16.7%), mientras que
en el grupo control se encontró una disminución
significativa (-2.7%), entre el inicio del estudio
y el momento de seguimiento. El tamaño
del efecto en el grupo TCP fue alto (@2p = .776).
En concreto, tanto en la post-intervención como
en el momento del seguimiento, los participantes
que se sometieron a TCP tenían un SDC significativamente
mayor (M = 3.84, DE = .219).
Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el
grupo de intervención y el grupo control en la
post-intervención y en el seguimiento.
Se concluye que los cambios en SDC fueron
positivos y mantenidos, por lo tanto, los resultados
sugieren que la TCP es favorable a la mejora
de SDC. Por otra parte, ya que la SDC se
asocia con el bienestar relacionado con la salud
de las poblaciones de mayor edad, hay que enfatizar
el desarrollo de SDC en la vejez.|
ABSTRACT: Sense of Coherence (SOC) derived from the salutogenic approach and seems to be a health promoting resource, which strengthens resilience and develops a positive subjective state of health. Older adults’ SOC is often challenged by specific issues in later adulthood such as grieving for losses, illness, feelings of worthless and solitude, retirement, disability and death, which require distinctive consideration. To our best knowledge, there are no previous studies that indicated the relation between a person-centered therapy (PCT) and older adults’ SOC. Therefore, this study aims to explore if a brief eight-session individual PCT intervention on older adults can promote their SOC, as compared with a control group (waiting list). Specifically, this is a randomized controlled pilot study designed to explore the promotion of SOC through an individual-based PCT interven - tion. We posited that participants randomized to PCT would report improvements in SOC from the pre- to the post-intervention moments when compared to those on the waiting list. The Orientation to Life Questionnaire (OtLQ) and demographics were assessed at the baseline (t1), post-treatment (t2) and at the 12-month follow-up (t3), in a group of 87 participants between 65 - 86 years (M = 72.4; SD = 5.15), from community and health centers in the Great Lisbon area, in Portugal. Participants were mostly women (59.8%), married (65.5%) and professionally inactive (63.2%). The Cronbach’s Alpha coeffi - cients for SOCS were .878, .989, and .988, in the three moments, respectively. Inclusion criteria determined their eligibility to participate in the study. No participant with a compromised cognitive function integrated the sample. All potential participants were given a brief description of the study and gave their informed consent. After the baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. The eight-session intervention was conducted in an adequate setting and with a weekly frequency. Comparisons between the three assessments (t1, t2 and t3) for the two groups were done using Repeated Measures ANOVA. Post-hoc Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) test for mean differences was used to compare the three assessments for the SOC, in each group (PCT and waiting list). After the intervention, a significant increase of 17.3% (M = 3.86, SD = .218) was observed in the participants who did the PCT. The SOC evidenced at follow-up (t3) (M = 3.84, SD = .219) by these participants was significantly higher (16.7%) in comparison to the baseline score (M = 3.29, SD = .245). Conversely, participants in the control group experienced a minor decrease between baseline (M = 3.28, SD = .236) and follow-up (M = 3.19, SD =. 244) (- 2.7%). The effect size in the PCT group was high (@2p = .776). Significant differences between the intervention group and the control group were found at the post-intervention and follow-up. Findings also showed that partici - pants in PCT experienced an increment in the three dimensions of SOC. The highest increase was observed in the Comprehensibility dimension (71.2%). Manageability and Meaningfulness sub - scales showed an increase of 32.9% and 12.1%, respectively. Changes in SOC were positive and maintained, thus, findings suggest that PCT is favorable to enhancing SOC. In particular, for the participants who did PCT, the significant increase of their SOC was mainly due to the high increase of the comprehensibility of events. This study contribut - ed to filling a gap in gerontological literature and this intervention has the potential to offer a reasonably low-cost self-regulatory approach to the SOC. In this context, PCT is also a personal resource to promote SOC, in late adulthood. More - over, since SOC is associated with health-related well-being among older populations, SOC devel - op ment in old age should be stressed.
|Aparece nas colecções:||UIPS - Artigos em revistas internacionais|
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